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The Cold Plasma Coagulator

K.S.Avramenko, O.B.Baranov, E.P.Kopenkin

The cold plasma coagulator (CPC) is developed on the basis of the latest achievements of the defense industry in the field of plasma devices. CPC can work autonomously. The first devices of this kind were created in 1994.

The principle of work is based on getting a cold plasma torch. No significant quantities of heat are registered when CPC is used for coagulation of tissues. That is why thermal injuries are 0.1-0.2 mm thin. It gives an opportunity to use the device in a large scale in vet clinics including ophthalmologic operations. Healing of injuries is much faster than after treatment with other types of coagulators.

CPC is a monopolar device and it helps avoid flowing of current through tissues and corresponding electrolysis of them when conventional electric coagulators are used. Coagulation in this case is done with a plasma torch. There is no contact between the electrode and the treated surface. This fact provides additional protection of injuries from infections. The "no-contact" character of work helps avoid welding of tissues to the coagulating electrode resulting in a break of tissues and new hemorrhage. It is especially important when operations on parenchymatous organs and eyes are done.

Monopolar character of CPC-s work is achieved with the idea to use the principle of quasistatic discharges, which has nothing to do with the conventional electric current. The plasma-generating head creates 500-1000 electrostatic discharges per second, which are perceived with an eye as a small plasma brush.

Static charges have a property to stay on the surface of conductors and not to penetrate inside. This is why there is no deep electrothermal injury of tissues under the treated surface. A layer of carbon 0.1 mm thin is formed immediately on the treated surface when plasma arch appears between the needle and the tissue. It additionally protects the tissues underneath from thermal injury. It means that in this process layers of tissue 0.1 mm thin are removed from the surface with simultaneous welding of vessels. The needle electrode is made of silver and in the process of coagulation the needle-s material is partially pulverized. Ions of silver coming into the wound change the electric potentials of the injured  surface for a long time stimulating processes of regeneration and additionally disinfecting it. The plasma torch ionizes the air and forms big quantity of ozone. If a burning match or lighter will be taken close to an electrode of working coagulator the ozone wind generated by plasma will extinguish the fire.

Such quantity of ozone causes complete disinfecting of the wound and also influences positively healing of eczema.

CPC can be used to remove papillomae, condillomae, tattoos, to cure animals, to cure patients who have venereal sarcoma, tendovaginitis, different dermatological diseases (wet eczema, dermatomicoses and eye diseases, to treat post-operational and infected wounds, to ligate blood vessels without ligatures welding walls of vessels.

The coagulator has no analogs concerning the quality of treatment of tissues and stopping hemorrhage in cases of break in parenchymatous organs and surgical operations on them.

The device was awarded with two gold medals in Eureka Exhibition-1997 (Brussels, Belgium) and gold medal of All-Russia Exhibition Centre (Moscow). Other types of coagulators existing now (laser, plasma and electric coagulators) weigh from 2 to 300 kg, need argon and from 900 to 5000 W of electric power, have water cooling. Gas necessary for one operation costs from $2 to $5. At the same time CPC weighs 500 g, it can work from accumulators, does not need gas and water supply.

Technical characteristics of the portable CPC.


Voltage of the autonomous source of power, V


Maximum of used power, W


Maximum of output power, W


Time of work without interruptions, h


     from accumulators inside


     from electric network

no limits

Weight with accumulators, kg



The CPC was used in 1500 operations which were held during last three years in 16 vet clinics of Moscow and St.Petersburg. methods to use CPC to cure animals were also developed by specialists from vet stations of Dzerzhinsk, Zelenograd and Skryabin Vet Academy.

When dogs (first of all belonging to the breeds of lop-eared dogs like cocker spaniels and setters) have chronic external otitis with obliteration of external acoustic meatus (verrucous dermatitis) it is accompanied with vegetations of tumor-like dermal neoplasms on the internal surface of acoustic meatus and floor of the auricle, with discharge of catarrhal purulent exudate of yellow and grey colour and unpleasant harsh smell.

Use of conservative and surgical methods like palliative operation, antibiotic therapy, etc., is laborious. It is so because instrumental approach to an affected acoustic meatus and dissection of neoplasms are accompanied with large dissection of tissues generally of the auricle floor, deformation of the cartilage, intensive hemorrhage (due to the fact that there are many big and small blood vessels in this area). Treatment in the postoperative period is also not easy because everyday treatments are laborious and very painful.

Use of CPC to cure verrucous dermatitis excepted necessity to provide large surgical access to neoplasms in the lumen of external acoustic meatus. It is very important to have such an access during operations. Risk of postoperative complications such as facial paralysis, hemorrhage, disjunction of sutures, development of fistulas, change of hearing to the worse, etc., disappeared.

Use of CPC to treat animals that have verrucous dermatitis helped make the postoperative treatment shorter and simpler. Moreover, in some cases the necessity of postoperative treatment was excluded completely. Ions of silver discharged from the coagulating needle due to thermal emission under influence of electrostatic field. Getting to the wound those ions changed electric potential of the injured surface for a long time. This effect expedited the regenerative processes and disinfected the wound.

Thanks to CPC there is no need for deep curettage of the auricle floor any more. Mechanical cleaning of tissues can be replaced with thermal atraumatic treatment 0.1 v 0.2 mm deep.

CPC was used for different operations including cavitary and osteal ones in the Zelenograd vet station.

Preparation of CPC for work took not more than 4 minutes. The head of the device was disinfected with 0.5% solution of chlorhexidinbigluconate in 70% solution of spirit (minimum 2-minute exposition). The needle of the device can be also placed in the spirituous solution of chlorhexidin. There was no direct contact of the coagulating head of the device with the treated tissue. The plasma arch appears when distance between the needle and tissue is 10 mm.

Methods to hold some kinds of operations are to follow.

Operation of castration of tom-cats is standard. Spermatic cord is prepared together with vessels (internal spermatic arteries and vein) and ductus diferens. Then hemostatic "Mosquito" forceps are used (distance is 1-2 cm from each other). CPC should be switched on cutting/coagulation mode and used for cutting the spermatic cord together with the vessels and ductus between forceps. CPC will then be useful in the process of tamponing and treatment of stumps. Then forceps are removed. Touching the edge of tissue with forceps one can become sure that there is no hemorrhage any more. Ligature is not used here. Operation of ovariectomy is standard. Laparotomy was done along the white line in the unfraumbilical region. The ovary should be found and raised upon the abdominal cavity and edges of incisions.

Dissections of the suspensory ligament of the ovary were done with the CPC in the mode of dissection of tissues. Hemostatic forceps were superimposed on ovarian artery and vein, on the one side, and on uterine vessels on the level of the uterine horn-s apex, on the other side. Stepping back 0.5-0.6 mm from the edge of forceps, a dissection was done between forceps cutting the ovary off. After the treatment of the stump with the CPC the forceps were removed. The ligature was not superimposed.

In some cases when cats have felt fur, the wool-cutting results in traumatization of skin with deep cuts. Using the CPC it is possible to turn out without putting stitches or agraffes on skin. Technique of manipulation is simple. Treating the cavity and edges of wound with the CPC resulted in double decreasing of wound-s surface. The capillary hemorrhage was stopped. The healing was taking place under carbonic crust.

Private doctors can also use this method because sometimes it is not easy to have immediately at hand a set of sterile instruments for stitching. Curing a 9-years-old German shepherd dog that had tendovaginitis it was possible to reach a short-lived therapeutical effect with the help of antibiotics and corticosteroids. Paquelin cauterization with the assistance of CPC directly in the region of pathologic process helped heal the animal.

The CPC could be also of great help for cauterization of papillomae on the skin. The use of this device is even more efficient in cases of extensive papillomatosis of the stomatic cavity. Local anesthesia can be used to remove from skin the benign tumors on limbs. The CPC was switched on the cutting mode. The tumor was removed at the base level. Such an operation is exsanguinate and has short duration. It can be painless if anesthesia is done correctly. Moreover, it can be done in home conditions.

Such an operation can be classified as a cosmetic one.

When small pets undergo hysterectomy, the stump of the uterus is treated with iodine solution and then the mucous membrane should be cleaned. Using the CPC it was cauterized without stitching the serous membrane (these stitches close the cavity of the uterus stump). It is also helpful to use the CPC for cutting the ligament of the uterus. Usually the ligature for stopping the hemorrhage is not necessary in this case.

The CPC was used in the Skryabin Vet Academy to cure different eye diseases of dogs and cats, especially keratitis that cannot be cured with usual methods.

26 dogs that had serpent ulcer of the cornea were observed in an experiment. Pathology fixed is to follow: blepharospasm, epithelium defect (erosion of the cornea), lacrimation, photophobia, pericorneal injection. To cure a dog it was necessary to cauterize the edges of ulcer one or two times with one-week interval. After that the sorcoseryl jelly and colbiocyn ointment should be used three times a day.

20 dogs (German shepherds) who were sick with herpes-virus hepatitis in a scrofulous form were characterized before the medical treatment as having moderate spasm of eyelids, insignificant discharge of serous-mucosal exudate, cornea being uneven, tuberous, pigmented and pierced with vessels. The treatment included 1 to 3 times cauterization of the connective tissue, vessels and pigment with 2-week intervals, subconjuctive injection of 0.5% novocainic solution, lydasa, dexamethasone and gentamycin 1 time a week and everyday treatment with prenacyd ointment. Dogs recovered within the period of 25-35 days. Recidivation was fixed for several dogs 3-4 months after.

16 dogs of different breeds with punctate keratitis (herpes-virus) had a macule of roundish form and mother-of-pearl shade with central or paracentral location. 6 dogs recovered after cauterization one time per month with following subconjunctival injection of 5% solution of novocain, lydasa, gentamycin, dexamethasone, glycopin.

Cauterization was done just one time in cases of pigmentary keratitis characterized with moderate blepharospasm, discharge of yellow purulent exudate, uneven tuberous cornea with places covered by dark brown pigment. Some places of the cornea were totally injured (n=10) and some places were partially pigmented (n=14). Later colbiocyn, jelly of sorcoceryl were used, dexamethasone, lydasa and novocain were injected subconjunctivally. Complete clearing-up of cornea was registered for 3 of 10 dogs with total injury and for 11 of 14 animals with partial pigmentation.

Corneal sequester is one pathologies which results in complete loss of cats- visual functions and sometimes in perforation of cornea. Clinical characters are to follow: necrotized corneal part of dark brown to black colour, blepharospasm, and lacrimation. Cauterization of edges in initial stage (erosion of cornea) one time in 2 weeks suspended developments of corneal sequester. After that Complex Immune Protector (CIP) was used as well as jelly of sorcoceryl and ointment of colbiocyn. Animals recovered within the period of 2-3 months.

Dermoid of conjunctiva and cornea is a benign neoplasm of skin components covered with hair. Sometimes it traumatizes the cornea resulting in hyperemia of conjunctiva, development of keratitis, ulcers of the cornea and loss of vision.

When dermoid was removed the CPC was used to stop hemorrhage and cauterize edges of the wound.


The CPC can be used to stop both arterial and venous hemorrhage by welding of vessels without ligation as well as for thermal separation (cutting) of tissues with simultaneous welding of adjacent vessels.

However, this procedure is laboured for vessels in fatty tissues. Dehematizing of the location under treatment is necessary to for successful welding of vessels. Exarticulation of those vessels out of adjacent tissues for at least 0.5 cm is obligatory.

The CPC is efficient in cases of keratitis first of all because the corneal tissues are treated with ions of  silver and are ozonied. Symptomatic treatment gives positive results with such a background.